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What is it about?
The optimization in the operation of distribution electric systems has become an acute problem. In order to evaluate some essential criteria (e.g., active power losses) the computation of power flow is absolutely necessary. Currently, this computation considers that the system is balanced and the waveforms are sinusoidal. But it is well known that the modern distribution systems are unbalanced and, often, harmonic polluted. Thus, taking into account the real operating conditions (unbalance, harmonics) it is of great interest for accurate steady state estimation. Basically, power flow algorithms are iterative and are based on different procedures: GaussSeidel, NewtonRaphson, backward/forward sweep. For distribution systems which are operated in radial configurations, the most recommended approach are backward/forward sweep based algorithms because of the small iterations number required and robust convergence. How it works? Besides the data types existing in the numbers theory, the high level programming languages allow the definition of new artificial data types, i.e. abstract data types. Thereby, all kind of electrical quantities are modeled as abstract data types. Furthermore, by implementing these models, all quantities are considered as objects. As a result, electrical engineering laws, as Ohm or Kirchhoff, are reduced to simplified expressions corresponding to fundamental harmonic component singlephase case. Consequently, we have introduced these objects on the backward/forward sweep algorithm with some particular adaptations. In what follows, the result solutions are given (see the Table):
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