What is it about?
The optimization in the operation of distribution electric
systems has become an acute problem. In order to evaluate
some essential criteria (e.g., active power losses) the
computation of power flow is absolutely necessary. Currently,
this computation considers that the system is balanced and the
waveforms are sinusoidal. But it is well known that the modern
distribution systems are unbalanced and, often, harmonic
polluted. Thus, taking into account the real operating
conditions (unbalance, harmonics) it is of great interest for
accurate steady state estimation.
Basically, power flow algorithms are iterative and are based
on different procedures: Gauss-Seidel, Newton-Raphson,
backward/forward sweep. For distribution systems which are
operated in radial configurations, the most recommended
approach are backward/forward sweep based algorithms
because of the small iterations number required and robust
How it works?
Besides the data types existing in the numbers theory, the
high level programming languages allow the definition of new
artificial data types, i.e. abstract data types.
Thereby, all kind of electrical quantities are modeled as abstract data types.
Furthermore, by implementing these models, all quantities are considered as objects.
As a result, electrical engineering laws, as Ohm or Kirchhoff, are reduced to
simplified expressions corresponding to fundamental harmonic
component single-phase case.
Consequently, we have introduced these objects on the backward/forward sweep algorithm with
some particular adaptations. In what follows, the result solutions are given (see the Table):